An dieser Stelle möchte ich gerne einige wichtige Studien zum Thema Low-Carb bereitstellen. Denn wissenschaftlich ist gut belegt, dass eine fettreiche und kohlenhydratarme Ernährung hilft, gesünder zu werden und Körperfett zu verlieren. Diese Liste werde ich regelmäßig aktualisieren mit neuen Studien.
Low-Carb und Gesundheit
Santos FL, et al. (2012): Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials of the effects of low carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors. Obes Rev. 2012 Aug 21. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01021.x.
Meta-analysis carried out on data obtained in 1,141 obese patients, showed the LCD to be associated with significant decreases in body weight (…), body mass index (…), abdominal circumference (…), systolic blood pressure (…), diastolic blood pressure (…), plasma triglycerides (…), fasting plasma glucose (…), glycated haemoglobin (…), plasma insulin (…) and plasma C-reactive protein, as well as an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (…). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine did not change significantly, whereas limited data exist concerning plasma uric acid.
LCD was shown to have favourable effects on body weight and major cardiovascular risk factors; however the effects on long-term health are unknown.
Feinman, RD, et al. (2014): Dietary Carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management. Critical review and evidence base DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2014.06.011
“We present major evidence for low-carbohydrate diets as first approach for diabetes. / Such diets reliably reduce high blood glucose, the most salient feature of diabetes. / Benefits do not require weight loss although nothing is better for weight reduction. / Carbohydrate-restricted diets reduce or eliminate medication. / There are no side effects comparable to those seen in intensive treatment with drugs.“
Hu et al. (2012): Effects of low-carbohydrate diets versus low-fat diets on metabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials., Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Oct 1;176 Suppl 7:S44-54. doi: 10.1093/aje/kws264.
“Compared with participants on low-fat diets, persons on low-carbohydrate diets experienced a slightly but statistically significantly lower reduction in total cholesterol (2.7 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 4.6), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.7 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 6.4), but a greater increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.3 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: 1.9, 4.7) and a greater decrease in triglycerides (-14.0 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: -19.4, -8.7). Reductions in body weight, waist circumference and other metabolic risk factors were not significantly different between the 2 diets. These findings suggest that low-carbohydrate diets are at least as effective as low-fat diets at reducing weight and improving metabolic risk factors. Low-carbohydrate diets could be recommended to obese persons with abnormal metabolic risk factors for the purpose of weight loss.“
Rehnqvist, N, et al (2013): Dietary treatment of obesity: A Systematic Review, ISBN: 978-91-85413-59-1 • ISSN: 1400-1403
In the short term (six months), advice on strict or moderate low carbohydrate diets is a more effective means of achieving weight loss than advice on low fat diets. In the long term, there are no differences in the effect on weight loss between advice on strict and moderate low carbohydrate diets, low fat diets, high protein diets, Mediterranean diets, diets aimed at achieving a low glycaemic load or diets containing a high percentage of monounsaturated fats. Advice on increasing the intake of dairy products (primarily milk) or reducing the intake of sweet drinks may also lead to weight loss.
Shai, I, et al. (2008): Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet, N Engl J Med 2008; 359:229-241July 17, 2008DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0708681
“The mean weight loss was 2.9 kg for the low-fat group, 4.4 kg for the Mediterranean-diet group, and 4.7 kg for the low-carbohydrate group (P<0.001 for the interaction between diet group and time); among the 272 participants who completed the intervention, the mean weight losses were 3.3 kg, 4.6 kg, and 5.5 kg, respectively”
Siri-Tarino, PW, et al (2010): Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725 Am J Clin Nutr March 2010 vol. 91 no. 3 535-546
Twenty-one studies identified by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and secondary referencing qualified for inclusion in this study. A random-effects model was used to derive composite relative risk estimates for CHD, stroke, and CVD.
Results: During 5–23 y of follow-up of 347,747 subjects, 11,006 developed CHD or stroke. Intake of saturated fat was not associated with an increased risk of CHD, stroke, or CVD.